Wavelength
Resonant Frequency
Impedance Matching
Polarization
Beam Antennae (parasitic arrays)
Wire and Vertical Antennae
Antenna Towers & Location
Basic Qualification Question Bank for Amateur Radio Operator Certificate Examinations 12 June, 2014

(D)

B-006-007-006 An isotropic antenna is:
A an infinitely long piece of wire
C a half-wave reference dipole
D a hypothetical point source

(B)
A A unidirectional cardioid
B A sphere
C A parabola
D A cardioid

Wavelength

(B)

B-006-008-003 The wavelength for a frequency of 25 MHz is:
A 32 metres(105 ft)
B 12 metres(39.4 ft)
C 15 metres(49.2 ft)
D 4 metres(13.1 ft)

(B)
B-006-008-004 The velocity of propagation of radio frequency energy in free space is:
A 186 000 kilometres per second
B 300 000 kilometres per second
C 3000 kilometres per second
D 150 kilometres per second

(C)
B-006-008-005 Adding a series inductance to an antenna would:
A have little effect
B have no change on the
resonant frequency
C decrease the resonant frequency
D increase the resonant frequency

(B)
B-006-008-006 The resonant frequency of an antenna may be increased by:
D increasing the height of the radiating element

(A)
B-006-008-007 The speed of a radio wave:
A is the same as the speed of light
B is infinite in space
C is always less than half speed of light
D varies directly with frequency

(A)
B-006-008-008 At the end of suspended antenna wire, insulators are used. These act to:
A limit the electrical length of the antenna
B increase the effective antenna length
C allow the antenna to be more easily held vertically
D prevent any loss of radio waves by the antenna

(D)
B-006-008-009 To lower the resonant frequency of an antenna, the operator should:
A shorten it
B ground one end
C centre feed it with TV ribbon transmission line
D lengthen it

(A)
B-006-008-011 The wavelength corresponding to a frequency of 2 MHz is:
A 150 m(492 ft)
B 360 m(1181 ft)
C 1500 m(4921 ft)
D 30 m(98 ft)

(C)
B-006-010-001 How do you calculate the length in metres(feet) of a quarter-wavelength vertical antenna?
A Divide 300(982) by the antenna's operating frequency in MHz
B Divide 150(491) by the antenna's operating frequency in MHz
C Divide 71.5(234) by the antenna's operating frequency in MHz
D Divide 468(1532) by the antenna's operating frequency in MHz

(C)
B-006-010-002 If you made a quarter-wavelength vertical antenna for 21.125 MHz, how long would it be?
A 7.2 metres(23.6 ft)
B 6.76 metres(22.2 ft)
C 3.36 metres(11.0 ft)
D 3.6 metres(11.8 ft)

(A)
B-006-010-003 If you made a half-wavelength vertical antenna for 223 MHz, how long would it be?
A 134.6 cm (53 in)
B 64 cm (25.2 in)
C 128 cm (50.4 in)
D 105 cm (41.3 in)

(A)
B-006-012-001 If you made a half-wavelength dipole antenna for 28.150 MHz, how long would it be?
A 5.08 metres(16.62 ft)
B 10.5 metres(34.37 ft)
C 28.55 metres(93.45 ft)
D 10.16 metres(33.26 ft)

Resonant Frequency
(C)

B-006-008-001 If an antenna is made longer, what happens to its resonant frequency?
A It stays the same
B It disappears
C It decreases
D It increases

(A)
B-006-008-002 If an antenna is made shorter, what happens to its resonant frequency?
A It increases
B It stays the same
C It disappears
D It decreases

Impedance Matching
(B)
When will a power source deliver maximum output to the load?
A When the load resistance is infinite
B When the impedance of the load is equal to the impedance of the source
C When air wound transformers are used instead of iron-core transformers
D When the power-supply fuse rating equals the primary winding current

(C)
B-006-006-005 What happens when the impedance of an electrical load is equal to the internal impedance of the power source?
A No current can flow through the circuit
B The source delivers minimum power to the load
C The source delivers maximum power to the load
D The electrical load is shorted

(B)
B-006-006-006 Why is impedance matching important?
A To ensure that the resistance and reactance in the circuit are equal
B So the source can deliver maximum power to the load
C So the load will draw minimum power from the source
D To ensure that there is less resistance than reactance in the circuit

(C)
B-006-006-007 To obtain efficient power transmission from a transmitter to an antenna requires:
B inductive impedance
C matching of impedances

(B)
B-006-006-008 To obtain efficient transfer of power from a transmitter to an antenna, it is important that there is a:
B matching of impedance
D proper method of balance

(D)
B-006-006-009 If an antenna is correctly matched to a transmitter, the length of transmission line:
A must be a full wavelength long
B must be an odd number of quarter-wave
C must be an even number of half-waves
D will have no effect on the matching

(D)
B-006-006-010 The reason that an RF transmission line should be matched at the transmitter end is to:
A ensure that the radiated signal has the intended polarization
B prevent frequency drift
C overcome fading of the transmitted signal
D transfer the maximum amount of power to the antenna

(C)

B-006-006-011 If the centre impedance of a folded dipole is approximately 300 ohms, and you are using RG8U(50 ohms) coaxial lines, what is the ratio required to have the line and the antenna matched?
A 4:1
B 10:1
C 6:1
D 2:1

(B)

B-006-006-001 What device might allow use of an antenna on a band it was not designed for?
A A high pass filter
B An antenna tuner
C An SWR meter
D A low pass filter

(D)
B-006-006-002 What does an antenna tuner do?
A It helps a receiver automatically tune in stations that are far away
B It switches an antenna system to a transmitter when sending, and to a receiver when listening
C It switches a transceiver between different kinds of antennas connected to one transmission line
D It matches a transceiver to a mismatched antenna system

(D)
What would you use to connect a coaxial cable of 50 ohms impedance to an antenna of 17 ohms impedance?
A An SWR meter
B A low pass filter
C A terminating resistor
D An impedance-matching device

Polarization

(A)

B-006-007-001 What does horizontal wave polarization mean?
A The electric lines of force of a radio wave are parallel to the Earth's surface
B The electric and magnetic lines of force of a radio wave are perpendicular to the Earth's surface
C The electric lines of force of a radio wave are perpendicular to the Earth's surface
D The magnetic lines of force of a radio wave are parallel to the Earth's surface

(A)
B-006-007-002 What does vertical wave polarization mean?
A The electric lines of force of a radio wave are perpendicular to the Earth's surface
B The magnetic lines of force of a radio wave are perpendicular to the Earth's surface
C The electric and magnetic lines of force of a radio wave are parallel to the Earth's surface
D The electric lines of force of a radio wave are parallel to the Earth's surface

(D)
B-006-007-003 What electromagnetic wave polarization does a Yagi antenna have when its elements are parallel to the Earth's surface?
A Helical
B Vertical
C Circular
D Horizontal

(D)
B-006-007-004 What electromagnetic wave polarization does a half-wavelength antenna have when it is perpendicular to the Earth's surface?
A Circular
B Horizontal
C Parabolical
D Vertical

(D)
B-006-007-005 Polarization of an antenna is determined by:
A the height of the antenna
B the type of antenna
C the magnetic field
D the orientation of the electric field relative to the Earth's surface

(D)
B-006-007-009 A dipole antenna will emit a vertically polarized wave if it is:
A fed with the correct type of RF
B too near to the ground
C parallel with the ground
D mounted vertically

(C)
B-006-007-010 If an electromagnetic wave leaves an antenna vertically polarized, it will arrive at the receiving antenna, by ground wave:
A horizontally polarized
B polarized in any plane
C vertically polarized
D polarized at right angles to original

(A)

B-006-007-011 Compared with a horizontal antenna, a vertical antenna will receive a vertically polarized radio wave:
A at greater strength
B at weaker strength
C without any comparative difference
D if the antenna changes the polarization

(A)
B-006-007-008 VHF signals from a mobile station using a vertical whip antenna will normally be best received using a:
A vertical ground-plane antenna
B random length of wire
C horizontal ground-plane antenna
D horizontal dipole antenna

Beam antennae
(A)

B-003-009-001 In a Yagi 3 element directional antenna, the ____________ is primarily for mechanical support purposes.
A boom
B reflector
C driven element
D director

(A)
B-003-009-002 In a Yagi 3 element directional antenna, the ________ is the longest radiating element.
A reflector
B director
C driven element
D boom

(B)

B-003-009-003 In a Yagi 3 element directional antenna, the ______________ is the shortest radiating element.
A driven element
B director
C boom
D reflector

(D)
B-003-009-004 In a Yagi 3 element directional antenna, the ______________is not the longest nor the shortest radiating element.
A boom
B director
C reflector
D driven element

(C)
B-006-009-001 What is a parasitic beam antenna?
A An antenna where all elements are driven by direct connection to the transmission line
B An antenna where wave traps are used to magnetically couple the elements
C An antenna where some elements obtain their radio energy by induction or radiation from a driven element
D An antenna where the driven element obtains its radio energy by induction or radiation from director elements

(D)
B-006-009-002 How can the bandwidth of a parasitic beam antenna be increased?
A Use traps on the elements
B Use tapered-diameter elements
C Use closer element spacing
D Use larger diameter elements

(C)
B-006-009-003 If a parasitic element slightly shorter than a horizontal dipole antenna is placed parallel to the dipole 0.1 wavelength from it and at the same height, what effect will this have on the antenna's radiation pattern?
A A major lobe will develop in the vertical plane, away from the ground
B The radiation pattern will not be affected
C A major lobe will develop in the horizontal plane, from the dipole toward the parasitic element
D A major lobe will develop in the horizontal plane, parallel to the two elements

(A)
B-006-009-004 If a parasitic element slightly longer than a horizontal dipole antenna is placed parallel to the dipole 0.1 wavelength from it and at the same height, what effect will this have on the antenna's radiation pattern?
A A major lobe will develop in the horizontal plane, from the parasitic element toward the dipole
B A major lobe will develop in the horizontal plane, parallel to the two elements
C A major lobe will develop in the vertical plane, away from the ground
D The radiation pattern will not be affected

(D)
B-006-011-001 How many directly driven elements do most Yagi antennas have?
A Two
B Three
C None
D One

(A)
B-006-011-002 Approximately how long is the driven element of a Yagi antenna for 14.0 MHz?
A 10.21 metres(33.5 feet)
B 5.21 metres(17 feet)
C 10.67 metres(35 feet)
D 20.12 metres(66 feet)

(A)
B-006-011-003 Approximately how long is the director element of a Yagi antenna for 21.1 MHz?
A 6.4 metres(21 feet)
B 5.18 metres(17 feet)
C 3.2 metres(10.5 feet)
D 12.8 metres(42 feet)

(D)
B-006-011-004 Approximately how long is the reflector element of a Yagi antenna for 28.1 MHz?
A 4.88 metres(16 feet)
B 10.67 metres(35 feet)
C 2.66 metres(8.75 feet)
D 5.33 metres(17.5 feet)

(B)
B-006-011-005 What is one effect of increasing the boom length and adding directors to a Yagi antenna?
B Gain increases
C SWR increases
D Weight decreases

(A)
B-006-011-006 What are some advantages of a Yagi with wide element spacing?
A High gain, less critical tuning and wider bandwidth
B High gain, lower loss and a low SWR
C High front-to-back ratio and lower input resistance
D Shorter boom length, lower weight and wind resistance

(B)
B-006-011-007 Why is a Yagi antenna often used for radiocommunications on the 20-metre band?
A It provides the highest possible angle of radiation for the HF bands
B It helps reduce interference from other stations off to the side or behind
C It provides excellent omnidirectional coverage in the horizontal plane
D It is smaller, less expensive and easier to erect than a dipole or vertical antenna

(B)
B-006-011-008 What does "antenna front-to-back ratio" mean in reference to a Yagi antenna?
A The number of directors versus the number of reflectors
B The power radiated in the major radiation lobe compared to the power radiated in exactly the opposite direction
C The relative position of the driven element with respect to the reflectors and directors
D The power radiated in the major radiation lobe compared to the power radiated 90 degrees away from that direction

(C)
B-006-011-009 What is a good way to get maximum performance from a Yagi antenna?
A Use a reactance bridge to measure the antenna performance from each direction around the antenna
B Avoid using towers higher than 9 metres(30 feet) above the ground
C Optimize the lengths and spacing of the elements
D Use RG-58 transmission line

(C)
B-006-011-010 The spacing between the elements on a three-element Yagi antenna, representing the best overall choice, is _____ of a wavelength.
A 0.50
B 0.75
C 0.20
D 0.10

(D) If the forward gain of a six-element Yagi is about 10 dBi, what would the gain of two of these antennas be if they were "stacked"?
A 7 dBi
B 20 dBi
C 10 dBi
D 13 dBi

Wire Antennae

(D)
B-006-008-010 One solution to multiband operation with a shortened radiator is the "trap dipole" or trap vertical. These "traps" are actually:
A large wire-wound resistors
B coils wrapped around a ferrite rod
C hollow metal cans
D a coil and capacitor in parallel

(B)
B-006-009-005 The property of an antenna, which defines the range of frequencies to which it will respond, is called its:
A polarization
B bandwidth
C front-to-back ratio
D impedance

(C)
B-006-009-008 What is meant by antenna bandwidth?
A The angle between the half-power radiation points
B The angle formed between two imaginary lines drawn through the ends of the elements
C The frequency range over which the antenna may be expected to perform well
D Antenna length divided by the number of elements

(B)
B-006-012-006 How does the bandwidth of a folded dipole antenna compare with that of a simple dipole antenna?
A It is 0.707 times the bandwidth
B It is greater
C It is essentially the same
D It is less than 50%

(A)
B-006-009-006 Approximately how much gain does a half-wave dipole have over an isotropic radiator?
A 2.1 dB
B 1.5 dB
C 3.0 dB
D 6.0 dB

(D)
B-006-009-007 What is meant by antenna gain?
A The numerical ratio of the signal in the forward direction to the signal in the back direction
B The numerical ratio of the amount of power radiated by an antenna compared to the transmitter output power
C The power amplifier gain minus the transmission line losses
D The numerical ratio relating the radiated signal strength of an antenna to that of another antenna

(D)
B-006-009-009 In free space, what is the radiation characteristic of a half-wave dipole?
B Omnidirectional
C Maximum radiation at 45 degrees to the plane of the antenna

(A)
B-006-009-010 The gain of an antenna, especially on VHF and above, is quoted in dBi. The "i" in this expression stands for:
A isotropic
B ideal
C ionosphere
D interpolated

(C)
B-006-009-011 The front-to-back ratio of a beam antenna is:
A undefined
B the ratio of the forward power at the 3 dB points to the power radiated in the backward direction
C the ratio of the maximum forward power in the major lobe to the maximum backward power radiation
D the forward power of the major lobe to the power in the backward direction both being measured at the 3 dB points

(D)
B-006-010-004 Why is a 5/8-wavelength vertical antenna better than a 1/4-wavelength vertical antenna for VHF or UHF mobile operations?
A A 5/8-wavelength antenna has less corona loss
B A 5/8-wavelength antenna is easier to install on a car
C A 5/8-wavelength antenna can handle more power
D A 5/8-wavelength antenna has more gain

(C)
B-006-010-005 If a magnetic-base whip antenna is placed on the roof of a car, in what direction does it send out radio energy?
A Most of it goes equally in two opposite directions
B Most of it goes in one direction
C It goes out equally well in all horizontal directions
D Most of it is aimed high into the sky

(B)
B-006-010-006 What is an advantage of downward sloping radials on a ground plane antenna?
A It lowers the radiation angle
B It brings the feed point impedance closer to 50 ohms
C It increases the radiation angle
D It brings the feed point impedance closer to 300 ohms
(B)
B-006-010-007 What happens to the feed point impedance of a ground-plane antenna when its radials are changed from horizontal to downward-sloping?
A It approaches zero
B It increases
C It decreases
D It stays the same

(D)
B-006-010-008 Which of the following transmission lines will give the best match to the base of a quarter-wave ground-plane antenna?
A 300 ohms balanced transmission line
B 75 ohms balanced transmission line
C 300 ohms coaxial cable
D 50 ohms coaxial cable

(C)
B-006-010-009 The main characteristic of a vertical antenna is that it will:
A require few insulators
B be easy to feed with TV ribbon transmission line
C receive signals equally well from all compass points around it
D be very sensitive to signals coming from horizontal antennas
(B)
B-006-010-010 Why is a loading coil often used with an HF mobile vertical antenna?
A To filter out electrical noise
B To tune out capacitive reactance
C To lower the losses
D To lower the Q
(B)
B-006-010-011 What is the main reason why so many VHF base and mobile antennas are 5/8 of a wavelength?
A It's a convenient length on VHF
B The angle of radiation is low
C The angle of radiation is high giving excellent local coverage
D It is easy to match the antenna to the transmitter

(D)
B-006-012-002 What is one disadvantage of a random wire antenna?
A It usually produces vertically polarized radiation
B It must be longer than 1 wavelength
C You must use an inverted T matching network for multi-band operation
D You may experience RF feedback in your station

(D)
B-006-012-003 What is the low angle radiation pattern of an ideal half-wavelength dipole HF antenna in free space installed parallel to the Earth?
A It is a circle(equal radiation in all directions)
B It is two smaller lobes on one side of the antenna, and one larger lobe on the other side
C It is a figure-eight, off both ends of the antenna
D It is a figure-eight, perpendicular to the antenna

(B)
B-006-012-004 The impedances in ohms at the feed point of the dipole and folded dipole in free space are, respectively:
A 52 and 200
B 73 and 300
C 73 and 150
D 52 and 100

(B)
B-006-012-005 A horizontal dipole transmitting antenna, installed at an ideal height so that the ends are pointing North/South, radiates:
A equally in all directions
B mostly to the East and West
C mostly to the South and North
D mostly to the South

(A)
B-006-012-007 What is a disadvantage of using an antenna equipped with traps?
B It is too sharply directional at lower frequencies
C It must be neutralized
D It can only be used for one band

(B)
B-006-012-008 What is an advantage of using a trap antenna?
B It may be used for multi-band operation
C It has high directivity at the higher frequencies
D It has high gain

(C)
B-006-012-009 If you were to cut a half wave dipole for 3.75 MHz, what would be its approximate length?
A 45 meters(145 ft)
B 75 meters(245 ft)
C 38 meters(125 ft)
D 32 meters(105 ft)

(A)
B-006-013-001 What is a cubical quad antenna?
A Two or more parallel four-sided wire loops, each approximately one-electrical wavelength long
B A center-fed wire 1/2-electrical wavelength long
C A vertical conductor 1/4-electrical wavelength high, fed at the bottom
D Four straight, parallel elements in line with each other, each approximately 1/2-electrical wavelength long

(A)
B-006-013-002 What is a delta loop antenna?
A An antenna whose elements are each a three sided loop whose total length is approximately one electrical wavelength
B A large copper ring or wire loop, used in direction finding
C An antenna system made of three vertical antennas, arranged in a triangular shape
D An antenna made from several triangular coils of wire on an insulating form

(D)
B-006-013-003 Approximately how long is each side of a cubical quad antenna driven element for 21.4 MHz?
A 0.36 metres(1.17 feet)
B 14.33 metres(47 feet)
C 143 metres(469 feet)
D 3.54 metres(11.7 feet)

(D)
B-006-013-004 Approximately how long is each side of a cubical quad antenna driven element for 14.3 MHz?
A 21.43 metres(70.3 feet)
B 53.34 metres(175 feet)
C 7.13 metres(23.4 feet)
D 5.36 metres(17.6 feet)

(B)
B-006-013-005 Approximately how long is each leg of a symmetrical delta loop antenna driven element for 28.7 MHz?
A 10.67 metres(35 feet)
B 3.5 metres(11.5 feet)
C 2.67 metres(8.75 feet)
D 7.13 metres(23.4 feet)

(A)
B-006-013-006 Which statement about two-element delta loops and quad antennas is true?
A They compare favourably with a three-element Yagi
B They perform very well only at HF
C They are effective only when constructed using insulated wire
D They perform poorly above HF

(A)
B-006-013-007 Compared to a dipole antenna, what are the directional radiation characteristics of a cubical quad antenna?
A The quad has more directivity in both horizontal and vertical planes
B The quad has more directivity in the horizontal plane but less directivity in the vertical plane
C The quad has less directivity in the horizontal plane but more directivity in the vertical plane
D The quad has less directivity in both horizontal and vertical planes

(B)
B-006-013-008 Moving the feed point of a multi-element quad antenna from a side parallel to the ground to a side perpendicular to the ground will have what effect?
A It will significantly increase the antenna feed point impedance
B It will change the antenna polarization from horizontal to vertical
C It will change the antenna polarization from vertical to horizontal
D It will significantly decrease the antenna feed point impedance

(B)
B-006-013-009 What does the term "antenna front-to-back ratio" mean in reference to a delta loop antenna?
A The number of directors versus the number of reflectors
B The power radiated in the major radiation lobe compared to the power radiated in exactly the opposite direction
C The relative position of the driven element with respect to the reflectors and directors
D The power radiated in the major radiation lobe compared to the power radiated 90 degrees away from that direction

(A)
B-006-013-010 The cubical "quad" or "quad" antenna consists of two or more square loops of wire. The driven element has an approximate overall length of:
A one wavelength
B three-quarters of a wavelength
C two wavelengths
D one-half wavelength

(A)
B-006-013-011 The delta loop antenna consists of two or more triangular structures mounted on a boom. The overall length of the driven element is approximately:
A one wavelength
B one-quarter of a wavelength
C two wavelengths
D one-half of a wavelength

Antenna Towers & Location

(C)
B-001-023-001 Which of these statements about the installation or modification of an antenna structure is not correct?
B Prior to an installation, for which community concerns could be raised, radio amateurs may be required to consult with their land-use authority
C A radio amateur may erect any size antenna structure without consulting neighbours or the local land-use authority

(D)
B-001-023-002 Who has authority over antenna installations including antenna masts and towers?
A The person planning to use the tower or their spouse
B The local municipal government
C The majority of neighbours residing within a distance of three times the proposed antenna structure height
D The Minister of Industry

(A)
B-001-023-003 If you are planning to install or modify an antenna system under what conditions may you not be required to contact land use authorities to determine public consultation requirements?
A When an exclusion criterion defined by Industry Canada applies
B In a rural area
C When the structure is part of an amateur radio antenna
D When transmitting will only be done at low power

(A)
B-001-023-004 The land use authority has not established a process for public consultation for antenna systems. The radio amateur planning to install or modify an antenna system:
A must fulfill the public consultation requirements set out in Industry Canada's Default Public Consultation Process unless the land use authority excludes their type of proposal from consultation or it is excluded by Industry Canada's process
B can proceed with their project without public consultation
C must implement a public consultation process of their own design
D must wait for the land use authority to develop a public consultation process

(C)
B-001-023-005 Which is not an element of the Industry Canada Public Consultation Process for antenna systems?
B Providing an opportunity for the public to respond regarding measures to address reasonable and relevant concerns
C Participating in public meetings on the project
D Providing written notice

(B)
B-001-023-006 The Default Public Consultation Process for antenna systems requires proponents to address:
A opposition to the project
B reasonable and relevant concerns provided in writing within the 30 day public comment period
C all questions, comments and concerns raised
D comments reported in media reporting on the proposal

(B)
B-001-023-007 Where a municipality has developed a public consultation process which of the following options best describes all circumstances when public consultation may not be required?
A Exclusions listed in both CPC-2-0-03 and the Local land use authority process
B Exclusions listed in either CPC-2-0-03 or the Local land use authority process
C Exclusions listed in the Industry Canada Client Procedures Circular on Radiocommunications and Broadcasting Antenna Systems CPC-2-0-03
D Exclusions defined in the Local land use authority process

(A)
B-001-023-008 Where the proponent and a stakeholder other than the general public reach an impasse over a proposed antenna system the final decision will:
B be postponed until those in dispute reach an agreement
C be made by the municipality in which the antenna is to be built
D be made by a majority vote of those residing within a radius of three times the antenna structure height

(B)

B-001-023-009 In general, what is the tallest amateur radio antenna system excluded from the requirement to consult with the land use authority and the public where there is a land use authority defined public consultation process?
A 21m
B the taller of the height exclusion in the land use authority public consultation process and Industry Canada's antenna siting procedures
C 10m
D 15m

(D)
B-001-023-010 Where a land use authority or municipality has established a public consultation process for antenna systems, who determines how public consultation should take place?